Kamis, 31 Maret 2011

Extend Payday Loans and CSO Loans?

You have 3 options when it comes to repaying your payday advance loans and CSO loans:

  • Payment in Full: First is to pay off the loan in full when your next payday arrives.

  • Extension: If for whatever reason you cannot make your loan repayment in full on your first payday, you may extend your loan and pay only the fees which are due on your first payday. Your loan will then carry over until your next pay cycle at which time your principal and new loan fees are due. The availability of an extension is subject to approval by CashNetUSA and individual state requirements. Extensions are not available in all states.

  • Partial Payment: If you are unable to make your full payment, you may also pay off the fees on your loan and pay some of the principal of the loan on your first payday. This partial payment of your principal on your first payday will lower the outstanding principal on your loan. Since the loan principal you owe is now lower, the amount of your loans fees will also be lower as a result of your partial payment. Your remaining loan principal and fees will be due at the end of your next pay cycle. payday advance loans and CSO Loans extensions are not available in all states.

PA Car Insurance

If you are determined to find cheap PA Car Insurance , you should be prepared to do some research and look into a number of different car insurance companies providing service in your local area before making a final decision. The internet is a great resource to locate the various auto insurance companies in your region. There are also websites you can go to that will come up with the different quotes from insurance companies in your zip code.

The way these websites normally work is, first you enter your zip code or location, then you might need to answer some additional questions that help determine pricing, and finally a listing of the different car insurance companies and their quotes should pop up. That way, you can compare prices and settle on one offering cheap PA car insurance premiums. Internet sites of these types that are specifically tailored to Pennsylvania drivers might be more reliable than general auto insurance quote websites.

There are different factors that determine car insurance rates in the state of Pennsylvania, and the different questions that you might need to answer to get car insurance quotes often relate to these factors. You might be asked several questions regarding your driving record. For example, you might be asked how many car accidents you have been involved in, which often happen on big highway systems like the Pennsylvania Turnpike, how many points you have on your driver's license, etc

Emergency Cash Loans

Fast cash loans, also known as payday advance loans, are very short term loans to provide you with emergency cash in situations where there appears to be no other solution. You are able to borrow up to $1000 for a period of between one and four weeks when you will need to pay it back on the agreed date. The date you will agree with the lender will be on the same day as your next paycheck arrives. They are a truly unique type of loan that are only offered by specialist lenders, they do not require a credit check or any faxed documents for you to be accepted for your cash advance.

What can I spend my cash advance on?

You can use a cash advance for any reason you could need Fast cash loans. Perhaps a bill has appeared on your doorstep that you had forgotten about or perhaps you need to pay for vital and urgent repairs to your house or your car. Either way a cash advance loan can be used for either of these purposes. In fact, if you're going on vacation and you don't quite have enough spending money for your time away you could consider applying for a cash advance loan to help pay for this.

Whole life insurance

Whole life insurance is a great investment--for the insurance agent who wants to sell it to you. If he can get you to believe that it would be a good investment for you, he will be a richer man by far. For you, trusting

life insurance as something that can help you out when you retire, or to borrow against now, is a bad idea according to many financial experts. Life insurance provides for your burial and financial needs for your loved ones, if you die, but is not a good investment.

Suze Orman, Dave Ramsey, and many other financial experts are against whole life insurance period. Many would support term life insurance instead. They are especially against it as an investment.
What exactly is whole life insurance? What is term insurance? Why are some financial experts so against whole life insurance period and especially against it as an investment?

Whole life insurance, which is also called permanent insurance and universal insurance, is insurance that will cover you for the rest of your life. Term insurance will cover you for a particular number of years--such as 5 to 30. The premiums with term insurance usually will remain the same for the term of the insurance. If you want insurance after that period of time, however, you can expect your rates to go up. With whole life insurance a portion of your premium will go toward the insurance cost of the death benefit. Another portion will go toward the savings in your policy. That money will accumulate and increase over time.


Payday Loan are a quick and easy way to get cash when needed, especially in an emergency. For example if you need to pay to have your car repaired or have bills that need payment immediately using a payday loan can be an effective way to get the funds you need. These loans are called 'Payday loans' as generally they are short term loans offered to individuals that have a job, but need a rapid loan before their payday arrives. The payday loan is usually expected to be paid back in full when the individual receives their salary, although there is usually a 30 day period to make the repayment.

You can usually get pay day loans between £80 and £1,000, and this can often be in your account within a day. When you apply for a loan, it is usually required that you have a job (you may need to provide a payslip) and a bank account, though terms can vary for each lender. Use the table below to compare payday loans online. Which Way to Pay gives you information on terms, the amount available for individual payday loans, required identification and whether you need a bank account. Click 'Apply' to go through to the relevant broker or lender and make a payday loan application online.

Rabu, 30 Maret 2011

VPN Provider

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BMW luxury cars have not always been popular candidates for modified car projects, but with the horse power wars between the top German car manufacturers of the last few decades, they have become quite popular with aftermarket car tuning houses such as Geiger and Reiger. As a result you'd always find the latest BMW cars, such as the BMW M3 and the other BMW 3 Series models at custom car shows.

Below is our gallery of some of the hottest BMW cars from different custom car shows...

Modified BMW M3 by GT Haus at the 2008 SEMA Show

Selasa, 29 Maret 2011

Setting Roller CVT, Matik SUZUKI

Kebanyakan pemilik matik SUZUKI bingung, bagaimana caranya menyeting kendaraanya agar lebih responsif. Karena kendaraannya di gunakan sehari - hari di perkotaan dan berkendara secara STOP & GO. Jika pada motor bebek (cup)perubahan yang di lakukan agar motor lebih responsif sangat, gampang cukup menaikkan atau membesarkan gir belakang motor di jamin lebih responsif. Bagaimana jika pada motor matik, apa yang perlu di modifikasi agar motor lebih responsif tampa merubah setelan mesin.???????

Setelah berdiskusi dengan mekanik SUZUKI Jember bernama Gusti Johan Hidayat, beliau menyarankan untuk menyeting ulang roller CVT. Menurut beliau untuk menyeting roller CVT matik harus melihat karakter jalan yang sering di lalui, jika matik di sering gunakan pada daerah perkotaan yang menuntut motor STOP & GO karena banyaknya lampu merah, akang dayat menyarankan untuk mengganti roller dengan yang lebih ringan, sebaliknya jika motor sering di gunakan untuk touring atau perjalanan luar kota sebaiknya roller di ganti dengan yang lebih berat untuk mengejar top speed.

Semoga artikel ini menambah ngacir matik SUZUKI anda.........Trims untuk akang dayat


Pada buku petunjuk pemakaian / penggunaan motor baru terdapat anjuran penggunaan bahan bakar ber-oktan 92 (PERTAMAX), sedangkan bahan bakar yang sering kita pakai adalah bahan bakar tipe premium yang ber-oktan 88. Perbedaan harga dari keduan tipe bahan bakar tersebut sangatlah jauh premium Rp 4.500/l sedangkan Pertamax Rp7.850,-. Bagaimana cara kita mengatasi masalah tersebut?????

Mari kita buat oktan Premium setara Pertamax yang beroktan 92 maupun pertamax plus yang beroktan 95, bagaimana caranya?. Kita beli etanol di toko kimia dekat rumah anda 1 litarnya berkisar Rp 9.000,- dan nilai oktan dari etanol adalah 117.

Untuk membuat premium setara pertamax 92 caranya adalah kita buat campuran premium 85% dan etanol 15%. Rumusnya adalah (85%xoktan premium)+(15%xoktan etanol)=oktan campuran premium dan etanol, mari kita berhitung (85%x88)+(15%x117)=92.

Untuk membuat premium setara pertamax Plus 95 caranya adalah kita buat campuran premium 75% dan etanol 25%. Rumusnya adalah (75%xoktan premium)+(25%xoktan etanol)=oktan campuran premium dan etanol, mari kita berhitung (75%x88)+(25%x117)=95.

Sebisa mungkin campuran etanol tidak melebihi 30%, karena mesin akan kering, panas dan akan cepat overheat.

Kelebihan dari etanol selain dari bahan alami dan membuat pembakaran di dalam mesin menjadi sempurna, etanol juga menekan emisi gas buang yang di hasilkan dari proses pembakaran mesin.

Selain kelebihan Etanol juga mempunyai kekurangan, karena oktannya sangat tinggi etanol gampang menguap ke udara dan mudah mengikat air. Oleh sebab itu bagi anda yang ingin mengaplikasi pada motor harian, sering - seringlah mengontrol karburator motor anda

Merawat Bearing/laher agar awet

Secara sistem pelumasan Bearing dibagi dua yaitu bearing yang di lumasi oleh grease, contohnya bearing roda dan bearing yang dilumasi langsung secara kontinyu oleh oli, contohnya bearing as-kruk pada mesin. Untuk bearing yang dilumasi oleh oli(didalam mesin) tidak akan kami bahas, karena tidak memerlukan perawatan. Nah, yang akan kita bahas adalah bearing yang berada di luar mesin.

Mengapa kita akan membahas perawatan bearing, karena bearing suatu part yang sering di lupakan perawatannya oleh pemilik kendaraan bermotor. Padahal tugas dari bearing sangat vital dan menentukan keseimbangan dari laju kendaraan itu sendiri.
Apabila bearing tidak di rawat dengan baik akan mengakibatkan :
1. Keseimbangan laju roda akan kacau dan bisa - bisa akan mengakibatkan kecelakaan
2. Rusaknya part rem cakram yang di akibatkan oleh tidak stabilnya putaran roda
3. Getaran yang berlebihan pada roda dan akan di teruskan ke seluruh bodi kendaraan
4. Dll

Bagaimanakah caranya agar bearing roda kendaraan kita awet?
Inilah hal - hal yang perlu di perhatikan agar bearing kita awet:
1. Pada waktu pemasangan bearing baru, usahakan jangan mengelap grease yang ada pada bearing, karena grease yang ada pada bearing baru sudah di formulasikan khusus untuk bearing.
2. Usahakan jangan menambah grease secara berlebihan, karena penambahan grease yang berlebihan akan mengakibatkan menumpukan grease dan lama kelamaan grease akan mengundang kotoran untuk masuk ke dalam bearing.
3. Jangan sekali - kali membuka kedua penutup bearing, apabila akan menambahkan grease usahakan membuka penutup bearing pada sebelah bagian saja. Dan pasang bearing yang telah terbuka penutupnya menghadap ke dalam dan yang masih lengkap dengan penutupnya menghadap keluar, agar air hujan yang mengandung asam tidak masuk ke dalam bearing.
4. Pada saat berkendara usahakan seminimal mungkin untuk tidak melindas jalanan yang berlobang, karena akan mempercepat umur bearing.
5. Apabila di salah satu bearing mengalami kerusakan/oblak, gantilah bearing secara bersamaan di kedua sisinya.

Obat keSATRIA suka Nembak

Bagi pemilik SUZUKI Satria Fu 150 yang suka nembak dari knalpot, jangan bingung dan menyalahkan pabrik menganggap motor cacat produksi. Coba cek dan perbaiki satu persatu part ini secara berurutan busi, selang PAIR dan Pilot Jet, karena bisasanya penyebab dari nembaknya knalpot di sebabkan oleh komponen berikut:

Coba cek busi, apakah api busi masih baik apa sudah setengah rusak. Lebih baik ganti busi setiap 7.500km. Apabila masih baik, atur kerenggangan busi sesuai standar pabrik 0,7-0,8mm. Karena apabila busi setengah mati/rusak, penyalaan api oleh busi di ruang bakar tidak akan maksimal dan akan terjadi suara nembak di knalpot.

2. PAIR ( Pulsed-secondary AIR-injection System )
Sebenarnya part ini di berfungsi untuk mengurangi polusi yang di hasilkan oleh pembakaran kendaraan. Akan tetapi karena seringnya biker membongkar pasang fairing motor, secara tidak sengaja selang PAIR terlepas dan akan mengakibatkan kacaunya udara yang di injeksikan ke dalam knalpot. Coba cek juga selang PAIR siapa tahu ada keretakan atau terjepit fairing.

Jika kedua Part di atas telah di periksa dan di perbaiki, tetapi si keSatria tetap nembak - nembak pada knalpot. Coba ganti Pilot Jet dengan ukuran yang lebih besar, bisa naik 1-2 step. biasanya di ganti dengan ukuran 17,5.

SEMOGA SI-keSATRIA TIDAK NEMBAK LAGI..........................

Setting Roller CVT, Matik SUZUKI

Kebanyakan pemilik matik SUZUKI bingung, bagaimana caranya menyeting kendaraanya agar lebih responsif. Karena kendaraannya di gunakan sehari - hari di perkotaan dan berkendara secara STOP & GO. Jika pada motor bebek (cup)perubahan yang di lakukan agar motor lebih responsif sangat, gampang cukup menaikkan atau membesarkan gir belakang motor di jamin lebih responsif. Bagaimana jika pada motor matik, apa yang perlu di modifikasi agar motor lebih responsif tampa merubah setelan mesin.???????

Setelah berdiskusi dengan mekanik SUZUKI Jember bernama Gusti Johan Hidayat, beliau menyarankan untuk menyeting ulang roller CVT. Menurut beliau untuk menyeting roller CVT matik harus melihat karakter jalan yang sering di lalui, jika matik di sering gunakan pada daerah perkotaan yang menuntut motor STOP & GO karena banyaknya lampu merah, akang dayat menyarankan untuk mengganti roller dengan yang lebih ringan, sebaliknya jika motor sering di gunakan untuk touring atau perjalanan luar kota sebaiknya roller di ganti dengan yang lebih berat untuk mengejar top speed.

Semoga artikel ini menambah ngacir matik SUZUKI anda.........Trims untuk akang dayat


Mengacu pada artikel saya sebelumnya, untuk menambah akselerasi awal motor matik. Selain lewat merubah roller CVT dengan yang lebih ringan, jika kurang puas dapat juga dengan memodifikasi mesin dengan modifikasi memanjangkan langkah piston (Stroke Up). Mengapa harus Stroke Up bukannya Bore Up (membesarkan Piston), karena liner selonsong silinder matik SUZUKI memakai sistem SCEM sehingga tidak bisa di oversize.

Ada beberapa cara proeses Stroke Up, yang pertama dengan membeli Pen Stroke Up after market yang kedua dan cara yang paling sering di lakukan dengan tetap menggunakan setang piston standar. Triknya, lubang asli di kruk as di tutup, lalu dibuat lubang pen lagi dengan posisi lebih keluar.

Dengan cara kedua maksimal Stroke Up 3mm, sehingga total perubahan stroke menjadi 6mm. 3mm naik dan 3mm turun. Dan jangan lupa untuk menambah paking almunium setebal 3mm pada blok silinder, agar kepala piston tidak bertabrakan dengan klep atau mentok kepala silinder.

Masih kurang puas,???? Ada cara alternative dengan menggunakan setang milik SUZUKI Smash yang lebih pendek dari dari setang bawaan matik SUZUKI. Dengan tampa menambah paking di blok silinder, Stroke Up bisa mencapai 10mm.

Pada proses Stroke Up, rantai keteng atau rantai kamrat harus memakai yang lebih panjang. Solusinya bisa memotong dan menambahkan rantai keteng sejenis atau solusi kedua dengan memakai rantai kamrat bekas yang sudah memanjang (mulur)
Dan yang paling penting setelah Proses Stroke Up selesai , jangan lupa untuk men-balance ulang kruk as motor matik anda.

Masih Kurang puas.?????
Sebaiknya jangan, karena motor kesayangan anda bisa menjadi mesin pembunuh bagi Tuannya.

Cara Gampang menaikkan kompresi Matik SUZUKI

Pada kedua artikel sebelumnya, kita telah bahas cara meningkatkan performa dari matik SUZUKI dengan cara mensetting kembali roller CVT dan Stroke Up pada matik SUZUKI maka untuk cara yang ketiga cukup mudah tetapi tetap harus melibatkan mekanik, karena harus membongkar blok mesin. Cara ketiga untuk meningkatkan performa mesin matik SUZUKI, yaitu dengan menaikkan kompresi.

Biasanya mekanik menaikkan kompresi motor dengan cara memotong kepala silinder, tetapi cara yang akan kita pakai adalah mengganti Piston atau seher dengan motor SUZUKI SMASH ATAU SUZUKI SHOGUN 125. Karena diameter piston matik SUZUKI sama dengan SUZUKI SMASH berdiameter 53,5mm. Perbedaan dari piston matik SUZUKI dan Piston SMASH adalah, piston SUZUKI SMASH lebih jenong dari pada punya matik SUZUKI. Secara otomatis tekanan kompresi akan lebih tinggi dari bawaan motor.

Konsekwensi dari peningkatan kompresi adalah motor butuh bahan bakar yang beroktan lebih tinggi dari biasanya kalau tidak akan terjadi detonasi, dan mesin motor akan mengalami peningkatan panas. Solusinya agar mesin tidak terlalu panas dan tidak timbul detonasi, puncak jenong piston di kurangi setebal kurang lebih 0,5mm dan coakan tempat klep juga di perdalam 0,5mm karena di takutkan pada kecepatan tinggi piston dan klep bertabrakan.




Custom Chevrolet cars have always been one of the iconic attractions a custom car shows, especially when hotrodders started slapping a Roots type supercharger on Chevrolet muscle cars such as the Chevrolet Impala SS and the Chevrolet Camaro. Then there's also the Chevrolet Corvette a popular model on the modified car scene.

Below are some of the best custom and modified Chevrolet cars from the biggest car shows...

Chevrolet Bel Air
Custom Chevrolet Bel Air at the SEMA Show in 2008
Custom Chevrolet Bel Air at the SEMA Show in 2008
Custom Chevrolet Bel Air at the SEMA Show in 2008
Chevrolet Camaro muscle car at the 2009 SEMA Show
Wide body Chevrolet Camaro at the 2009 SEMA Show
Chevrolet Camaro muscle car tuned by Irmscher at the Essen Motor Show
Chevrolet Camaro Bumble Bee from the Transformers movie at the 2007 SEMA Show
A red Ferrari F430  at the 2009 Shanghai Auto Show
Custom Chevrolet Camaro SS muscle car at the 2009 SEMA Show
Custom Chevrolet Corvette with lambo doors in Abu Dhabi
Geiger supercharged Chevrolet Corvette at the 2008 Essen Motor Show
Modified Chevrolet Corvette C85 at the SEMA Show in 2008
Chevrolet Corvette Z06 at the SEMA Show in 2008
Chevrolet Corvette ZR1 at the SEMA Show in 2008
The Chevrolet Cruze World Touring Car Championship race car
Chevrolet Silverado truck at the SEMA Show in 2008

Senin, 28 Maret 2011

Dodge Challenger

Dodge is renounded for its Mopar muscle cars such as the Dodge Charger and the Dodge Challenger of the 1970s. These classic cars are quite popular at custom car shows, especially in North America. Their modern counter parts, the retro styled Dodge Charger and the Dodge Challenger of the late 2000s, as well as the hot Dodge Viper of the 1990s have also become quite popular among car tuners such as Geiger and can be seen at any car show, from SEMA in Las Vegas, to the Essen Motor Show in Germany, and even at the Tokyo Auto Salon in Japan!

We've collected pictures of some of our favorite classic Mopar Dodge muscle cars, as well as some of the more modern Dodge cars from different car shows around the world...

Classic Dodge Challenger at the 2009 Detroit International Auto Show
Classic Dodge Challenger at the 2009 Detroit International Auto Show
Classic Dodge Challenger at the 2009 Detroit International Auto Show
Dodge Challenger SRT muscle car at the 2009 Detroit International Auto Show
Dodge Charger SRT8 at the 2008 Detroit International Auto Show
Hot Dodge Charger SRT8 at the 2005 SEMA Show
Custom Dodge Charger SRT8 at the 2007 SEMA Show
Cool Dodge Neon SRT-4 at the 2003 SEMA Show
Another Dodge Neon SRT-4 at the 2003 SEMA Show
Cool Dodge Viper at the 2003 SEMA Show in Las Vegas
Dodge Viper at the 2008 Canadian International Auto Show in Toronto
Dodge Viper ACR at the 2009 Detroit International Auto Show
Dodge Viper ACR at the 2008 Detroit International Auto Show

Minggu, 27 Maret 2011

Bugatti Veyron 16.4 Grand Sport


Bugatti made its reappearance after a long absence in the later 1990s under the ownership of Volkswagen AG. Since then the company has struck gold in the form of the insanely fast, 1,000 bhp Bugatti Veryron supercar which has become a favorite among tuners of exclusive cars, and a favorite among car enthusiasts.

Below is our gallery of some of the best tuned Bugatti cars from various car shows...

Bugatti Veyron 16.4 Grand Sport at the 2010 Beijing Auto Show
Bugatti Veyron 16.4 Grand Sport at the 2010 Beijing Auto Show
The super fast Bugatti Veyron at the 2008 Beijing Auto Show
The Bugatti Veyron supercar at the 2009 Detroit Auto Show

Sabtu, 26 Maret 2011

BMW Z4 Coupe

BMW luxury cars have not always been popular candidates for modified car projects, but with the horse power wars between the top German car manufacturers of the last few decades, they have become quite popular with aftermarket car tuning houses such as Geiger and Reiger. As a result you'd always find the latest BMW cars, such as the BMW M3 and the other BMW 3 Series models at custom car shows.

Below is our gallery of some of the hottest BMW cars from different custom car shows...

BMW Z4 Coupe by dStyle at the 2008 Essen Motor Show
BMW Z4 Coupe by dStyle at the 2008 Essen Motor Show

Jumat, 25 Maret 2011

Performance Camshafts

The two important aspects of a camshaft, in terms of engine performance, are camshaft duration, or cam duration, and valve lift. Both cam duration and valve lift are determined by the camshaft lobe. Cam duration is the time that at least one valve of a cylinder remains open, i.e., off its valve seat, measured in degrees rotation of the crankshaft, while valve lift is the maximum distance the valve head travels from the valve seat.


Valve lift is somewhat related to intake valve head diameter. An engine with an intake valve head diameter of 1.400in to 1.500in will generally perform best with a valve lift of 0.395in to 0.475in; an engine with a larger intake valve head diameter of 1.750in to 1.875in will generally perform best with a valve lift of 0.425in to 0.550in; and an engine with a large intake valve head diameter of 2.000in to 2.250in will generally perform best with a valve lift of 0.475in to 0.650in. But these are just rough guidelines; ultimately you will need to take some gas flow readings on a flow bench to determine the best valve lift for your particular engine.

A number of factors influence valve lift. The most important being the gap between the intake and exhaust valves, the piston to valve clearance and the intake charge pressure. These factors also influence cam duration. Another factor influencing valve lift is valve spring compression. Obviously, once the valve springs are fully compressed, it cannot give any more and the valve cannot be pushed further down into the combustion chamber.


As I've mentioned earlier, cam duration is measured in degrees rotation of the crankshaft, rather than the camshaft, and the crankshaft completes two full rotations for every rotation of the camshaft. In other words, with a 310 degree camshaft, the valves are open for only 155 degrees of actual camshaft rotation.

A performance camshaft for a naturally aspirated engine will have a duration in the range of 270 degrees to 310 degrees or more, with a 270 degree camshaft described as a 'mild' camshaft and a 310 or more degree camshaft being described as a 'wild' race camshaft. A stock camshaft usually has a duration of around 270 degrees but what differentiates a 270 degree performance camshaft from a stock camshaft is increased valve lift and a much faster rate of valve lift. With a faster valve lift rate, the valve reaches full lift quicker and remains at full lift for longer. This increases Volumetric Efficiency (VE) as more air flow in and out of the engine is possible.

A determining factor, when choosing camshaft duration is the purpose of the vehicle. The longer the duration of the camshaft, the further up the rev range the power band shifts, and the rougher the idle. Obviously, as the power band moves higher up the rev range, bottom end power is lost. Also, as cam duration and valve overlap increases, torque is lost. Fuel efficiency also decreases and exhaust emissions increase as valve overlap increases.

High performance camshafts start at 280 degrees of duration. These camshafts have increased valve overlap but not too much so emissions and fuel economy are not severely affected. These are generally good camshafts for modified street cars and produce good power from 2,500 RPM up to 7,000 RPM but they do not have a smooth idle because of the increased valve overlap.

A 290 degree camshaft requires more cylinder head work in terms of cylinder head porting and gas flowing as they work better when the engine's Volumetric Efficiency (VE) is improved. As you'd expect, these camshafts produce a fairly rough idle. These camshafts are generally good for rally cars and produce power from 3,000 RPM up to 7,500 RPM. A 300 degree camshaft requires even higher levels of VE, reaching the physical gas flowing limitations of a two valve cylinder head with a single camshaft. These camshafts are good for modified race cars and produce good power from 4,000 RPM up to 8,000 RPM. However, they have a very rough idle.

A camshaft with a duration of more than 300 degrees is an out and out race camshaft with a power band in the 4,500 RPM to 9,000 RPM rev range. To make effective use of a 300 degree camshaft, you need to ensure that the engine has a very high VE. You also need to ensure that the engine can rev beyond the red line of most stock engines.


The limit for opening the exhaust valve is approximately 80° before bottom dead center (BBDC). Opening the exhaust valve any sooner tends not to increase power production but will shift the power band higher up the rev range and will reduce low end torque as downward pressure on the piston during the power stroke is released. The same applies to closing the intake valve where 80° after bottom dead center (ABDC) is the limit for increased power production.

Kamis, 24 Maret 2011

Doing The Head

A Twin Cam Cylinder Head
A Twin Cam Cylinder Head

When it comes to getting the most power out of a naturally aspirated engine the key area that you must focus your attention on is the cylinder head. This is the one area that will potentially give you the greatest increase in engine power. Why? Well, as Langer explains in engine building and power basics, the key to increasing an engines horse power is to get the engine to ingest more air and be able to expel the resultant increase in exhaust gasses, in other words, getting the engine to pump more air by increasing the air-flow in and out of the engine.

On a motor car engine, there are three areas that can affect air-flow and where you can make improvements. These are:

We've discussed the intake system and the exhaust system elsewhere on this web site so now it's time for us to turn our attention to modifying the cylinder head. However, in this section we're going to discuss a little bit more than just the cylinder head, we're going to discuss cylinder head porting, gas flowing and power tuning the cylinder head, old school style! We'll also be discussing performance camshafts, cam timing, valve timing and valve overlap.

A word of warning though, cylinder head porting and gas flowing is a rather advanced form of car modification and is not for the novice or for the faint of heart. Cylinder head porting is a skill that must be developed and honed by hours and hours of practice. If you're intent on trying cylinder head porting, the first thing that you need to know is the porting always begins by trial and error so if you're going to do your own cylinder head porting, start on a cylinder head that you can afford to total, in fact, start with a couple that you don't mind loosing. Otherwise you should leave cylinder head porting up to a professional with a flow bench. The other thing to note, is that cylinder head porting requires some rather expensive tools. You'll need a high-speed extended pneumatic die-grinder with carbide and steel grinders, and a high-pressure air compressor (no, we're not talking about turbochargers here) to power the grinder. You could use an electric die-grinder rather than a die-grinder, but electric die-grinders don't operate at a high-speed like pneumatic die-grinders. You could also use an electic drill rather than a die-grinder but you won't get the same results as you would with a longer, more agile and thinner die-grinder. An electric drill also does not operate at the high-speeds that a pneumatic die-grinder does.

A die-grinder
A Pneumatic Die Grinder

Right, if you've read all that, bought your air compressor and your die-grinder, and gotten hold of a few spare cylinder heads, despite our warnings, then we can move on and start modifying the cylinder head for extreme power. But remember that we did warn you. Right, we'll begin by looking at the camshaft before moving on to the equipment you'll require to port your cylinder head, the basics of gas flowing and cylinder head porting itself.

Rabu, 23 Maret 2011

The Diesel Engine

The diesel engine was developed by Rudolf Diesel and was patented in 1892. Diesel engines are very similar to petrol or gasoline engines in that both rely on the Otto cycle to convert the chemical energy in fuel into mechanical energy and, in so doing, produce power. The major difference is the way fuel is delivered to the combustion chamber and the way the fuel mixture is ignited. Firstly, in gasoline engines, the fuel is usually fed into the intake manifold or the intake port where it is combined and mixed with the intake air, which is also called the intake charge. In modern diesel engines, the fuel is injected directly into the combustion chamber. This means that only the intake charge is compressed during the compression stroke and the diesel is only introduced once the intake charge has been compressed. Secondly, in gasoline engines, the fuel mixture is ignited by a sparkplug, while in diesel engines the fuel is ignited by the heat from the compressed air in the combustion chamber. However, diesel requires a much higher temperature than petrol before ignition (not spontaneous ignition) can take place.

These differences has important consequences for the modification of diesel engines, especially when you consider the differences between diesel fuel and gasoline.


For starters, diesel is a heavier fuel than gasoline. In other words, it contains more carbon atoms in longer chains than gasoline (technically, gasoline is typically C9H20, while diesel fuel is typically C14H30). Because it is heavier, diesel is much more stable that gasoline and vaporizes at a much higher temperature than gasoline. It also vaporizes much slower than gasoline and burns much slower. The result is that diesel requires a much higher temperature to ignite. Gasoline, for example can burn at temperatures of -40° F while diesel requires a temperature of at least 143° F!

The main point, however, is that diesel burns slower than petrol. This means that it will produce a steady pressure on the piston for longer. Consequently, diesel can be ignited at a higher temperature, and indeed can be allowed to reach the point at which it will ignite spontaneously. The interesting thing is that diesel needs a temperature of 410° F to ignite spontaneously but will ignite or burn at a much lower temperature of 143° F. Consequently, diesel cannot be introduced into the combustion chamber until the correct temperature is reached, or else it will pre-ignite. Now, to reach the required temperature, air in the combustion chamber must be compressed much more than in a gasoline engine, and because there is not fuel in the combustion chamber, the intake charge can be safely compressed without the danger of pre-ignition. Thus a gasoline engine will typically have the compressions ratio would of somewhere between 1:9 and 1:12 while a diesel engine will typically a compression ratio of around 1:25! And it is this higher compression ratio, as well as its higher vaporization point and slower burning rate and the fact that diesel has about 17% more energy density than gasoline, that makes diesel much more efficient than gasoline.

Now you're thinking why not use direct injection in a gasoline engine so we can increase the compress without pre-ignition? Indeed some manufacturers to employ direct injection on gasoline engines, but without the higher compression ratio because gasoline will burn too quickly at higher temperatures, hence the need to keep the temperature of the intake charge down in a gasoline engine. Remember, diesel burns at a slower rate than gasoline and therefore can be ignited at higher temperatures.


When it comes to modifying a diesel engine, you can apply the same techniques that you would apply to a gasoline engine, except for ignition system obviously as diesel engine has no spark plug. All the basics apply, i.e., increasing the engine displacement, increasing the engine speed, improving and increasing the air intake, and increasing the volumetric efficiency.

Nonetheless, there are a number of things to consider before attempting to modify a diesel engine.

  • Firstly, components in the diesel engine are exposed to far higher pressures and temperatures than the components in gasoline engines. Therefore, diesel engines need to be more robust with thicker cylinder walls and stronger pistons. Should you decide to increase the displacement of your diesel engine by boring out the cylinders you should ensure that you improve your cooling system.
  • Secondly, diesel burns at a much slower rate than gasoline; therefore a diesel engine will operate at a much lower RPM. This is natural, and getting the diesel engine to operate at higher speed will mean increasing the temperatures in the combustion chamber, which would require thicker cylinder wall and much a better cool system, and improving the cooling system is easier said than done because of diminishing returns!
  • Furthermore, increasing the temperatures in the combustion chamber will increase the heat in the intake manifold, and will result in a reduction of air density. Consequently, we're dealing with even more diminishing returns! Still, maximum power will be reached at relatively low RPMs because of the slow rate at which diesel burns and will drop off dramatically at higher RPMs.
  • Thirdly, increasing the amount of air ingested by the engine will require a proportionate increase in the amount of fuel injected into the engine. Thus bigger injectors, a higher fuel pressure will be required, or a remapped engine control unit (ECU) would be required. On some turbo-diesel engines, a remapped ECU has led to impressive improvements in power and should be the starting point in your quest to squeeze more power from a diesel engine.

Selasa, 22 Maret 2011

Engine Building for Power and Reliability

If you're planning to do some serious modifications to a four stroke engine, you'd better do it right if you don't want to end up with an expensive pile of scrap metal. It's easy to slap on a turbo and run mild boost on a stock engine or even fitting a bigger turbo to an OEM turbo engine, but if you're looking for serious power, you have to rebuild the subassembly to ensure that it can handle the additional power without disintegrating. Obviously you need to ensure that your drive train can handle the extra engine power as well, but in this section we'll discuss engine building for maximum power, starting with the subassembly.


You've got to start by ensuring that your cylinder block is race grade. Even if you're just building a street race car, engine tuning would be senseless if the block is not up to the job. Start by pressure testing the block. If you have an air compressor you can do this yourself. Strip down the engine but leave the Welch plugs and oil gallery plugs in place. Fit the bare cylinder head to the cylinder block using new head gasket or one that's not too worn. Close all water opening off with steel plates. One of the plates must be fitted with an air line fitting that you can connect your air compressor to. Gradually increase the pressure in the block to 40 psi. Don't increase the pressure too quickly as a loose fitting Welch plug or a weak spot in the block could blow out can cause you serious injury. If everything is still in place, gradually increase the pressure to 50 psi. Now spray the block with a mild water/detergent mixture. Carefully check the block for air bubbles. If you see bubbles, either have it repaired or test another block. If you get no bubbles, release the air pressure and remove the cylinder head. Use a plug tap to clean the head stud and main bearing cap threads and chamfer any stud hole that is not already chamfered. This will prevent the thread from pulling up. Grind away any casting sag, especially around the main bearing webs, the sump pan deck, and the valley area of a Vee engine. This will prevent cracks from developing. Now remove all the Welch plugs and oil gallery plugs and have the block boiled and cleaned in a chemical bath. This will remove all rust and scale in the water channels, and the caked oil in the oil galleries.


Chrome-moly forged con rods
Chrome-moly forged con rods

The stock crankshaft and con rods are usually cast iron items that can be retained if the engine is not required to handle high boost pressures, high horse power, and high revs. Forged crankshafts and con rods are much stronger and are more suitable for high load, high rev engines. In either event, you should have the crankshaft and con rods Magnafluxed to check for cracks.

If the crankshaft has no cracks, check it for straightness. A crankshaft that is even 0.002in out of straight will increase bearing load and will be the cause of bearing failure. If your crankshaft is out of straight, you have two options – either have the crankshaft straightened or machine the crankshaft's main journals so that crankshaft rotation is true. However, straightening a crankshaft that is to be used for a high boost, high horse power, and high rev engine is a waste of time and money as the combustion pressure and inertia loads will reverse the straightening process. Machining the crankshaft journals will also weaken the crankshaft. Ultimately, replacing a bent crankshaft is your best option.

It goes without saying that all the crankshaft journals should be checked for roundness and size. The same goes for the big end on the con rods. The crankshaft, con rods, and flywheel should then be balanced statically and dynamically to reduce shock loading and vibration.


Forged pistons
High strength forged pistons

The next thing you need to consider is the pistons. Most OEM engines are fitted with cast aluminum pistons with a slotted oil groove. High performance OEM engines may be fitted with hypereutectic cast aluminum pistons that have a higher silicon content. The higher silicon content makes the cast material much harder and more wear resistant, which allows these pistons to withstand greater temperature and pressure loads. This makes these pistons ideal for street racers. However, the higher silicon content also makes the pistons more brittle and prone to breaking under detonation. Thus, these pistons are not a good choice for forced induction applications where the possibility of detonation in greatly increased.

Forged pistons, on the other hand, have much denser and even harder than hypereutectic cast aluminum pistons but are not as prone to breaking under detonation. Forged pistons also have drilled oil holes round the oil groove rather than a slot in the oil groove. This makes them the best option for high horse power, forced induction engines.

Pistons can also be either full skirt pistons or slipper type. The full skirt pistons are heavier but stronger and less prone to wobble. Needless to say, they would be the best option for any engine modification project.

Senin, 21 Maret 2011

Maximizing Engine Power

The four stroke engine
The four stroke engine.

Custom-car.us is all about engine tuning and car performance; so if you want to know about car tuning, how to increase engine power and how to modify your car, then you've come to the right place. However, before we can start talking about engine tuning and increasing engine power and torque, we first need to have a basic understanding of how an internal combustion engine produces power. Therefore, over the next few pages of this section, we'll discuss the various basic concepts and principles of the internal combustion engines and the common terms used to discuss engine modifications, such as volumetric efficiency, engine displacement and air density as all of these influence engine power and performance. We also have a glossary of car modification terms that you can check for the meaning of some of the terms we use on this site. Once we have a clear understanding of how a four stroke engine produces power, we can move on and start make our P.L.A.N.s to increase engine performance.

Although there are two types of internal combustion engines, namely the two stroke engine and the four stroke engine, we're only interested in car performance and since the two-stroke engine is not used on cars, we won't be discussing that engine here. Instead we'll focus out attentions soely on the four-stroke engine because custom-car.us is all about car tuning and because cars use the four-stroke engine and not the two-stoke engine. If you're looking for information about the two-stroke engine, you could try How Stuff Works or Wikipedia.

The rotary engine
The Wankel rotary engine.

There are also numerous derivatives of the four stroke engine – diesel engines, petrol engines, four cylinder engines, straight sixes, boxer engines, rotary or wankel engines, turbocharged engines, supercharged engines, etc. With the marked exception of the rotary engine, all four stroke engines have a common basic design – they all consist of individual cylinders with pistons that are connected to a flywheel by a crankshaft, and they all make use of what is known as the Otto Cycle. This makes it fairly easy to discuss basic engine power concepts as we don't need to concern ourselves with V's and straights, boxers and horizontally opposed engines. Instead our discussion can and will be all about the four stroke internal combustion engine. In addition, the diesel engine has had a resurgence in recent years and has become more of a performance engine, especially the turbo-diesel engine. A lot of what we discuss here can be applied to modern diesel engines but there are some aspects of engine modification that are specific to diesel engines; for this reason we'll discuss diesel engines and diesel engine modifications on their own.

So let us begin by looking at the four strokes of the four stroke internal combustion engine otherwise known as the Otto cycle. You can skip this section if you're already familiar with the Otto cycle and head on over to basic engine power or engine building, but this section does tie into most of what we discuss on Custom-car.us. If you're intereseted in modifying diesel engines, hop on over to our page on diesel engines to find out how to apply our discussions to diesel engines.

Minggu, 20 Maret 2011

Toyota Camry

The Toyota Camry was originally launched in Japan in January 1980 as the Toyota Celica Camry. It was in essence a second-generation Toyota Carina with updated body-styling and a front-end that resembled the Toyota Celica Supra of 1978. In 1982, the Toyota Camry became a compact mid-sized sedan and hatchback model range on its own and was marketed above the Toyota Carina and the Toyota Corona, which were also a compact mid-sized model ranges. In 1986 a Camry station wagon was added to the line up while the five-door hatchback was dropped and in 1994 a two-door Toyota Camry coupé was added. The Toyota Camry is currently in its seventh generation, which was introduced at the North American International Auto Show in 2006. The latest generation includes the Toyota Camry Hybrid which went on sale in March 2006 as a 2007 model. Below are some of our Toyota Camry Wallpaper that you can download.

Free 2009 Toyota Camry Wallpaper
2009 Toyota Camry
Free 2009 Toyota Camry Wallpaper
2009 Toyota Camry
Free 2009 Toyota Camry Wallpaper
2009 Toyota Camry
Free Toyota Camry Hybrid Wallpaper
Toyota Camry Hybrid

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